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Key Advantages

  • Evaluation of neuro-biogenic amines and metabolites
  • Functional assessment of neurotransmitter enzyme function
  • Supports treatment monitoring and identification of metabolism imbalance
  • Results are presented in a clear, easy-to-understand report
  • Result-specific commentary is provided

Introduction

This Neurotransmitters test is available with Metabolites (Neurobiogenic Amines Comprehensive) or without Metabolites (Neurobiogenic Amines – Basic).

Urinary neuro-biogenic amines provide an overall assessment of a patient’s ability to synthesise and metabolise neurotransmitters, both in the periphery and, for some enzymes, behind the blood brain barrier as well.

Alterations in urinary neurotransmitter status may be associated with a variety of conditions including metabolic disorders, mood/behavioral disorders, and in rare occasions the presence of certain tumours. Associations between urinary neurotransmitter levels and health conditions have been documented in scientific literature and may provide valuable insights as part of a comprehensive health assessment.

Analytes Tested

3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC)

3-Methoxytyramine (3-MT)

5-Hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA)

Catecholamine Fractionation

Creatinine

Dopamine, free

Epinephrine, free

Gamma-aminobutyrate

Glutamate

Glycine

Histamine

Metanephrine Fractionation

Metanephrine

Norepinephrine

Normetanephrine

Phenethylamine (PEA)

Serotonin

Taurine

Tryptamine

Tyramine

Tyrosine

This test is useful for

  • Functional testing for COMT and MAOA
  • Identifying neurological imbalances
  • Measuring response to therapy
  • Risk assessment

Detailed Information

Analysis of urinary neuro-biogenic amines (neurotransmitters),and their metabolites, provides a non-invasive assessment of neurotransmitter metabolism. Neurotransmitter testing may provide therapeutic opportunities that improve clinical success and patient health outcomes.

A review of the current scientific literature demonstrates how urinary neuro-biogenic amine testing may be used in clinical practice:

Functional testing – Neuro-biogenic amine metabolism may be mediated by a variety of enzymes, including catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and monoamine oxidase (MAO).  Patterns of neurotransmitters and their metabolites may provide functional information about these two important enzymes.

Identify imbalances – research indicates that urinary neuro-biogenic amine measurements may correlate with neurological conditions such as depression and PTSD.

Response to therapy – certain neuro-biogenic amines, such as serotonin, may be altered by the addition of neurotransmitter precursors such as 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP).  These changes may be apparent in the urine.

Risk assessment – Changes in urinary serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate levels have been suggested as biomarkers for neurobehavioral toxicology (symptoms from chemical or toxicant element environmental exposures)

Neurotransmitters, or “biogenic amines” are secreted from pre-synaptic neurons into the synapse between nerve cells to stimulate receptors on post-synaptic neurons. The neurotransmitters are all produced from essential aromatic amino acids.  Neurotransmitter metabolism may be mediated by a variety of enzymes expressed differently throughout the body.  Circulating levels of neurotransmitters and metabolites may have distinctive sources.  Urinary levels of neuro-biogenic amines primarily reflect the activity of the peripheral and GIT enteric nervous systems.  Up to 20% of urinary neurotransmitters are estimated to originate in the CNS.

A lack of nutritional cofactors (vitamins, minerals) required for normal enzyme function may decrease enzyme function and neurotransmitter levels.  Neurotransmitter receptors and metabolic enzymes may be subject to mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that may affect receptor or enzyme function.  Normal neurotransmitter receptor function is also necessary for normal neurotransmitter activity.  Neurotransmitter levels may be influenced by diet, lifestyle and other health conditions such as: high sodium intake, age, gender, body mass index, kidney function, environmental exposures, infection and tobacco use.

Urinary neuro-biogenic amines provide an overall assessment of a patient’s ability to synthesise and metabolise neurotransmitters, which must occur in both the peripheral nervous system and behind the blood brain barrier (BBB).  Alterations in urinary neurotransmitter status may result from a variety of conditions including metabolic disorders, mood/behavioral disorders, environmental exposures or (rarely) the presence of certain tumours.  Evaluation of neurotransmitters may provide increased clarity about a patient’s health and functional status.

Urinary neuro-biogenic amines are a non-invasive way to assess the synthesis and metabolism of neurotransmitter molecules essential for normal function.  Information gained through neurotransmitter testing may provide therapeutic opportunities that improve clinical success and patient health outcomes.  Associations between urinary neurotransmitter levels and health conditions have been documented in scientific literature and may provide valuable insight as part of a comprehensive health assessment.

Resources

Sample Report – Comprehensive (including Metabolites)

Sample Report – Basic (including Metabolites)

Collection Instructions

Test Resource Guide

Doctors Data have created a Comprehensive Guide on this test which you can find online here.